Continents and countries that depend on fossil fuels, such as Europe, and within Europe, northern Europe, are increasingly looking with interest at renewable energies and are committed to developing such energies as a source for future development.
Biogas from different sources is a valuable material for the production of energy, chemical products and bio-fuels. Because it is a renewable energy, it is inexhaustible, clean and can be usedin a self-administered manner, which enables production to be planned and adapted to consumption needs. The use of biogas causes less pollution and constitutes a viable alternative, given the noticeable depletion of fossil fuels, the prices of which are now increasing.
The current trend in countries such as Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany, Austria, Norway, Finland, Sweden, the United States and others, is to focus on the production of biogas as a substitute for natural gas, for grid injection or to power motorised vehicles.
Natural gas is found underground in the natural environment in “gas pockets” covered by impermeable layers which prevent it from being released into the atmosphere. It can also be found along with crude oil in oil wells or in exclusive natural gas fields. The main component of natural gas is always methane (CH4), which accounts for between 83% and 97% of the total volume of the mixture. Other gaseous hydrocarbosns that are always present in natural gas, though in smaller proportions, are ethan (C2H6), buthane (C4H10) and propane (C3H8). Finally, components of natural gas, other than hydrocarbons, normally include nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, helium and argon.
Development in the field of biogas has reached the point where the trend is towards increasing focus on the use of biogas as a substitute for natural gas, through the production of biomethane. Different technologies are appearing on the market to achieve this conversion.