John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Full‐life chronic toxicity of sodium salts to the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer in tests with laboratory cultured food

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Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

While insects occur in nearly all freshwater ecosystems, few sensitive insect models exist for use in determining the toxicity of contaminants. The objectives of the present study were to adapt previously developed culturing and toxicity testing methods for the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), and to further develop a method for chronic toxicity tests spanning organism ages of <24‐h post hatch to adult emergence using a laboratory cultured diatom diet. We conducted 96‐h, fed acute tests and full‐life chronic toxicity tests with sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, and sodium sulfate. We generated 96‐h LC50s of 1,062 mg Cl/L (mean of three tests), 179 mg N‐NO3/L, and 1,227 mg SO4/L. Acute to chronic ratios ranged from 2.1 to 6.4 for chloride, 2.5 to 5.1 for nitrate, and 2.3 to 8.5 for sulfate. The endpoints related to survival and development time were consistently the most sensitive in our tests. The chronic values we generated for chloride were in the same range as those generated by others using natural foods. Furthermore, our weight versus fecundity plots were similar to those previously published using the food culturing method on which our method was based, indicating good potential for standardization. We feel that the continued use of this sensitive mayfly species in laboratory studies will help to close the gap in understanding between standard laboratory toxicity test results and field‐based observations of community impairment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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