John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Gamma irradiation‐induced oxidative stress and developmental impairment in the hermaphroditic fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus embryo

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This study investigated the effects of gamma radiation on the early developmental stages in hermaphroditic fish embryos of Kryptolebias marmoratus. The author smeasured reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and antioxidant enzyme activities with the endpoint hatching rate after gamma irradiation of different embryonic stages. Then, the transcriptional changes of antioxidant enzyme‐coding genes were evaluated by quantitative real‐time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in response to gamma radiation on embryonic stages. Gamma radiation inhibited hatching rate and caused developmental impairment in a dose‐dependent manner. Embryos showed tolerances in a developmental stage‐dependent manner, indicating that early embryonic stages were more sensitive to the negative effects of gamma radiation than were later stages. After 5 Gy rate of radiation, the ROS level increased significantly at embryonic stages2, 3, and 4 with a significant induction of all antioxidant enzyme activities. The expressions of GST isoforms, catalase(CAT), superoxide dismutase (Mn‐SOD, Cu/Zn‐SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mRNA were upregulated in a dose‐and‐developmental stage‐dependent manner. This finding indicates that gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress and subsequently modulates the expression of antioxidant enzyme‐coding genes as one of the defense mechanisms. Interestingly, embryonic stage 1 exposed to gamma radiation showed a decreased expression in most antioxidant enzyme‐coding genes, suggesting that this is also related to a lower hatching rate and developmental impairment. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the molecular mode of action on gamma radiation in aquatic organisms. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

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