Municipal sewage treatment facilities have important implications for cities' sustainable development and water environment protection. This study's aim is to optimize the sewage treatment facilities by evaluating pollution effects and governance demands for Huai'an City in Jiangsu province, China. The township is chosen as the evaluation unit and the spatial pattern, change trend, and environmental impact of pollution sources are analyzed to examine the demands for sewage treatment facilities in the future. By employing the ArcGIS spatial analysis tools, the spatial matching patterns between municipal treatment capacity and sewage discharge are studied. Considering the characteristics of wastewater discharge and the actual ability and designed capacity of the wastewater treatment facilities, the study area is divided into three types, including sewage treatment potential released type, sewage treatment enhanced type, and status quo maintained type. Comparing the quantity of wastewater discharged with the treatment potential capacity, direction for the construction and operation of sewage treatment facilities is proposed. Results of this study provide a scientific basis for site selection and layout optimization of municipal sewage treatment facilities.