Keywords: vehicle emissions, emission control, pollution reduction, three-way catalyst, environmental technology, innovation, local regulations, air pollution, Sweden, Europe, oil consumption, policy, automobile industry
Global innovation vs. local regulation: introduction of automotive emission control in Sweden and Europe
The increasing effects of pollution in larger cities in Europe in the 1960s spurred investigations into the sources of pollution and the means for its reduction. One important source of pollution was found to be the increasing fleet of passenger cars. In difference to a common description like 'strict vehicle emission regulations were established in EU and EFTA countries in 1995', this paper shows the mosaic of arguments and technical capabilities resulting in a staged development, in stark contrast to an in theory unanimous desire to reduce air pollution in Europe. It shows that multiple agendas of equal proportion reduction of oil consumption, improving air quality and sustaining regional or national industrial sectors may slow or halt regulations that were successfully introduced elsewhere.