Greenhouse gas emission potential of the municipal solid waste disposal sites in Thailand
Open dumping and landfilling are the prevalent solid waste disposal practices in Thailand. Surveys on the disposal sites revealed the presence of 95 landfills and 330 open dumps. Methane emission potential at these sites was estimated by three methods. Results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method, Landfill Gas Emission model (LandGEM), and closed flux chamber technique were compared. The methane emission potential of 366 Gg/yr using the IPCC method was higher than the estimations of the LandGEM and closed flux chamber method of 115 Gg/yr and 103 Gg/yr, respectively. An understanding of the methane emission potential initiated the analysis of upgrading the open dumps into landfills, adding landfills to meet the future needs and utilization of landfill gases. Upgrading the open dumps to landfills increased the methane emission rates and their utilization potential. Approximately 20 additional landfills may be required to meet future demands. Landfill gas (LFG) utilization appears to be feasible in the large-scale landfills.