Groundwater Level Forecasting in a Shallow Aquifer Using Artificial Neural Network Approach
Forecasting the ground water level fluctuations is an important requirement for planning conjunctive use in any basin. This paper reports a research study that investigates the potential of artificial neural network technique in forecasting the groundwater level fluctuations in an unconfined coastal aquifer in India. The most appropriate set of input variables to the model are selected through a combination of domain knowledge and statistical analysis of the available data series. Several ANN models are developed that forecasts the water level of two observation wells. The results suggest that the model predictions are reasonably accurate as evaluated by various statistical indices. An input sensitivity analysis suggested that exclusion of antecedent values of the water level time series may not help the model to capture the recharge time for the aquifer and may result in poorer performance of the models. In general, the results suggest that the ANN models are able to forecast the water levels up to 4 months in advance reasonably well. Such forecasts may be useful in conjunctive use planning of groundwater and surface water in the coastal areas that help maintain the natural water table gradient to protect seawater intrusion or water logging condition.