Groundwater Monitoring Plans at small-scale sites--an innovative spatial and temporal methodology
An innovative methodology for improving existing groundwater monitoring plans at small-scale sites is presented. The methodology consists of three stand-alone methods: a spatial redundancy reduction method, a well-siting method for adding new sampling locations, and a sampling frequency determination method. The spatial redundancy reduction method eliminates redundant wells through an optimization process that minimizes the errors in plume delineation and the average plume concentration estimation. The well-siting method locates possible new sampling points for an inadequately delineated plume via regression analysis of plume centerline concentrations and estimation of plume dispersivity values. The sampling frequency determination method recommends the future frequency of sampling for each sampling location based on the direction, magnitude, and uncertainty of the concentration trend derived from representative historical concentration data. Although the methodology is designed for small-scale sites, it can be easily adopted for large-scale site applications. The proposed methodology is applied to a small petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated site with a network of 12 monitoring wells to demonstrate its effectiveness and validity.