Optimal design of a remediation system has been an active and important area of research since the past several years due to its potential to reduce the remediation cost substantially. The paper presents the state-of-the-art for application of simulation-optimisation approach to design an optimal groundwater remediation system. In the simulation-optimisation approach, the researchers have used embedded techniques, response matrix approach and direct coupling of simulation model in optimisation procedures. The review shows that the simulation-optimisation approach promise for a cost-effective solution to groundwater remediation problems. Further, the methods dealing with uncertainty in model parameters are also discussed. It is observed that future research in this area should be directed to efficient solution methods incorporating uncertainty in groundwater remediation.
Keywords: groundwater remediation, bioremediation, simulation, optimisation, uncertainty analysis, optimal design, water pollution