Guidelines for drinking water quality Addendum to Vol 2 Health Criteria
In 1984 and 1985, the World Health Organization (WHO) published the first edition of Guidelines for drinking-water quality in three volumes. The development of these guidelines was organized and carried out jointly by WHO headquarters and the WHO Regional Office for Europe (EURO).
In 1988, the decision was made within WHO to initiate the revision of the guidelines. The work was again shared between WHO headquarters and EURO. Within headquarters, both the unit for the Prevention of Environmental Pollution (PEP) and the ILO/UNEP/WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) were involved, IPCS providing a major input to the health risk assessments of chemicals in drinking-water.
The revised guidelines are being published in three volumes. Guideline values for various constituents of drinking-water are given in Volume 1, Recommendations together with essential information required to understand the basis for the values. Volume 2, Health criteria and other supporting information, contains the criteria monographs prepared for each substance or contaminant; the guideline values are based on these. Volume 3, Surveillance and control of community supplies, is intended to serve a very different purpose; it contains recommendations and information concerning what needs to be done in small communities, particularly in developing countries, to safeguard their water supplies.
The preparation of the current edition of the Guidelines for drinking-water quality covered a period of four years and involved the participation of numerous institutions, over 200 experts from nearly 40 different developing and developed countries and 18 meetings of the various coordination and review groups. The work of these institutions and scientists, whose names appear in Annex 1, was central to the completion of the guidelines and is much appreciated.
For each contaminant or substance considered, a lead country prepared a draft document evaluating the risks for human health from exposure to the contaminant in drinking-water. The following countries prepared such evaluation documents: Canada, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States of America.
Under the responsibility of a coordinator for each major aspect of the guidelines, these draft evaluation documents were reviewed by several scientific institutions and selected experts, and comments were incorporated by the coordinator and author prior to submission for final evaluation by a review group. The review group then took a decision as to the health risk assessment and proposed a guideline value.
During the preparation of draft evaluation documents and at the review group meetings, careful consideration was always given to previous risk assessments carried out by IPCS, in its Environmental Health Criteria monographs, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the joint FAO/WHO Meetings on Pesticide Residues, and the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, which evaluates contaminants such as lead and cadmium in addition to food additives.
It is clear that not all the chemicals that may be found in drinking-water were evaluated in developing these guidelines. Chemicals of importance to Member States which have not been evaluated should be brought to the attention of WHO for inclusion in any future revision.
It is planned to establish a continuing process of revision of the Guidelines for drinking-water quality with a number of substances of agents subject to evaluation each year. Where appropriate, addenda will be issued, containing evaluations of new substances or substances already evaluated for which new scientific information has become available. Substances for which provisional guideline values have been established will receive high priority for reevaluation.