Guidelines for transient analysis in water transmission and distribution systems
All water systems leak, and many supply systems do so considerably, with water losses typically of approximately 20% of the water production. The IWA Water Loss Task Force aims for a significant reduction of annual water losses by drafting documents to assist practitioners and others to prevent, monitor and mitigate water losses in water transmission and distribution systems. One of the causes of water losses are transient phenomena, caused by normal and accidental pump and valve operations. A number of excellent books on fluid transients have been written, but there is still a need for practical guidance on the hydraulic analysis of municipal water systems in order to reduce or counteract the adverse effects of transient pressures. The need for guidelines on pressure transients is not only motivated by its positive effect on water losses, but also by the contribution to safe, cost-effective and energy saving operation of water distribution systems. This paper overviews the emergency scenarios to be considered and the integrated design of control systems and anti-surge devices, which will lead to a more cost-effective, robust, reliable and water tight supply system.