Keywords: happiness, air pollution, political rights, Granger causality, Europe, air quality
Happiness and air pollution: evidence from 14 European countries
The causal relationship between happiness and air pollution is examined using a sample of 14 European countries. Two sets of results are presented using the notion of Granger causality. For individual countries, the existence of a unidirectional or bidirectional causal structure for almost half of the countries can be observed. The panel approach, on the other hand, provides some support for the existence of bidirectional causality between happiness and air pollution for the region taken as–a–whole.