Heat Island Research in Europe: The State of the Art
This paper summarizes recent research on urban heat islands carried out in Europe. Recent studies to identify the amplitude of urban heat islands as well as the main reasons that increase temperatures in urban areas are identified and discussed for southern, mid- and northern Europe. Studies aiming to identify the energy impact of heat islands are presented, as well as those that explore the impact of heat islands on the cooling potential of natural and night ventilation techniques. New deterministic and data-driven models developed to estimate the amplitude of heat islands are discussed and the results are presented of recent research on mitigation techniques and, in particular, the impact of green spaces, as well as the development and testing of white and coloured cool materials.