Keywords: dose response, hormesis, linear modelling, multi-, stage models, longevity, risk assessment, slope factor, human health, risk management
Hormesis: considerations and implications for human health risk assessment
The concept of hormesis as a phenomenon is presented, in the context of its evolving definitions. Predominant types of hormetic effect and potential examples thereof are discussed, focusing on chemicals. The potential for hormesis to affect regulatory approaches and several basic processes used in formulating risk assessment parameters, such as study design, interpretation of dose-response information, and extrapolation of toxicity values, is examined. The potential ramifications for human health risk assessment and risk management are discussed.