In order to dynamically investigate the historical evolution of CO2 emissions induced by consumption and fixed capital investment, this paper defines the concepts of consumption–type emission (CPE) and construction–type emission (CTE). It also proposes the ratio of consumption–type emission to construction–type emission (RCC) as a partial indicator of a CO2emissions structure that synchronously considers CPEs and CTEs. In this study, we employ an environmentally extended input–output analysis model (EE–IOA) to estimate the carbon emissions from CPE and CTE. By analysing data comprised of 86 samples from 32 countries, the study evaluated the evolution of RCC during the process of industrialisation (including the post–industrialisation period) and economic growth. The empirical results indicate that RCC increases with the advance of industrialisation and the increase in GDP per capita. Carbon emission reduction goals should be established considering the reduction potentials of CPE and CTE, and enhance the carbon emission reduction activity of enterprises through market power by transforming consumers' consumption habits into low–carbon ones. The most significant outcome of this paper is the development of a method for correctly evaluating the emissions levels of countries at different stages of development in order to establish reasonable emissions reduction targets.
Keywords: carbon dioxide, CO2, carbon emissions, industrialisation levels, stages of economic development, input–output technique, consumption–type emissions, construction–type emissions, consumer consumption, fixed capital investment, air pollution, air quality, GDP per capita, emissions levels, environmental impact