How reliable are data for the ecotoxicity of trivalent chromium to Daphnia magna?
Risk assessments from the European Union and the World Health Organization report values for acute and chronic toxicity of Cr(III) to Daphnia magna in the range of 0.6–111 mg/L and 0.047–3.4 mg/L, respectively. To understand whether factors other than the use of different test media and data reporting contribute to this variability, we tested the acute (48 h) and chronic (21 d) toxicities of Cr(III) to D. magna according to Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development (OECD)methods. Filterable (0.45 μm) chromium concentrations were measured at t = 0, 6, 24, and 48 h, the latter value corresponding to the total duration of the acute tests and to the interval between medium renewals in chronic tests. In highly alkaline media (4.9 meq/L), Cr concentrations decreased rapidly below the analytical detection limit, and no toxicity was observed. In less alkaline media (approximately 0.8 meq/L), the decrease in filterable Cr concentrations was inversely proportional to the quantity of added Cr(III). Overall, we could conclude that existing data likely underestimate the ecotoxicity of Cr(III) to D. magna. A reliable assessment of the hazard of Cr(III) to D. magna must consider that exposure concentrations can decrease markedly from the beginning to the end of a test, and medium alkalinity strongly influences the outcome of laboratory toxicity tests. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC