John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Human health risk assessment of triclosan in land‐applied biosolids

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Triclosan (TCS; 5‐chloro‐2‐[2,4‐dichlorophenoxy]‐phenol) is an antimicrobial agent found in a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products. Numerous studies have examined the occurrence and environmental fate of TCS in wastewater, biosolids, biosolids‐amended soils, and plants and organisms exposed to biosolids‐amended soils. TCS has a propensity to adhere to organic carbon in biosolids and biosolid‐amended soils. Land application of biosolids containing TCS has the potential to contribute to multiple direct and indirect human health exposure pathways. In order to estimate exposures and human health risks from biosolids‐borne TCS, we conducted a risk assessment in general accordance with the methodology incorporated into the US Environmental Protection Agency's Part 503 biosolids rule. Human health exposures to biosolids‐borne TCS were estimated on the basis of published empirical data or modeled using upper‐end environmental partitioning estimates. Similarly, we evaluated a range of published TCS human health toxicity values. Margins of safety were estimated for 10 direct and indirect exposure pathways, both individually and combined. Our risk assessment finds large margins of safety (>1000 to >100,000) for potential exposures to all pathways, even under the most conservative exposure and toxicity assumptions considered. The human health exposures and risks from biosolids‐borne TCS are concluded to be de minimis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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