John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Human pharmaceuticals in the marine environment: Focus on exposure and biological effects in animal species

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Courtesy of John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Marine waters have been poorly investigated for the occurrence of pharmaceutical contamination. Recent data confirm that pharmaceuticals widely occur in marine and coastal environments; therefore assessment of potential risk to marine species needs further efforts. The present paper represents the first extensive review of pharmaceutical contamination in marine environments addressing the effects on the marine biota analysed at the molecular, cellular and individual levels. Since pharmaceuticals differ from conventional pollutants being designed to interact with specific physiological pathways at low doses, the most recent evidence on modes of action (MOA) and physiological alterations on marine animal species are discussed. Data on spatial distributions of pharmaceuticals in waters and sediments, and bioaccumulation are also presented. The present review also seeks to expand knowledge on how the quality of coastal and marine environments could be efficiently monitored to anticipate possible health and environmental risks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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