In the present study, we evaluate the behavior of real textile wastewater treatment using a system composed of two sequential pilot-scale reactors (anaerobic followed by aerobic) during 622 days. The work focused on the competition between color and sulfate removal processes, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was increased in the anaerobic/aerobic reactors from 16/12 hours in phase I (PI) to 4/3 days in phase II (PII). The organic matter was successfully removed in both phases through the system, and the highest efficiency (75%) was achieved in PII. The increase in the HRT did not improve azo dye degradation under anaerobic conditions. Instead, it favored sulfate reduction, which removal efficiency increased from 26% in PI to 75% in PII. Aromatic amines were detected in the anaerobic reactor effluent and removed in the aerobic reactor.