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Hydro-geochemical characteristics of groundwater of Sirhind Nala sub-basin (Ghaggar river basin, India) in relation to salinity hazard

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Hydro-geochemical investigation of groundwater of Sirhind Nala sub-basin of the Ghaggar river basin (Southwest Punjab) has been carried out to study the distribution and sources of various dissolved ions. The levels of EC indicated that high salinity of groundwater was confined to small patches. The variations in EC levels seem to be related to non-flushing of water entrapped by clay beds, predominant in the region. High concentrations of SO
4
2−
, K
+
, NO
3
and Cl
indicated influence of anthropogenic activities. Furthermore, the groundwater was also assessed for its suitability for drinking purposes. The present study reveals that the water quality of the Sirhind Nala sub-basin has significantly deteriorated; which makes it unfit for drinking, as well as for agricultural purposes.

Keywords: groundwater salinity, electrical conductivity, sodium absorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, Punjab, India, hydro-geochemical characteristics, dissolved ions, drinking water, water quality, water pollution

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