Through the political, the technological and the commercial story of the early phases of the ECTOS project and its background, the implementation of hydrogen as transport fuel in Iceland is analysed. The presence of large amounts of geothermal energy is the resource basis for the governmental plans for converting Iceland into a hydrogen economy. Strong political commitment has established the framework for this transition. The goal of replacing the import of fossil fuels by 20302040 has provided motivation and support for hydrogen R&D projects. The early public scepticism turned into general support when large multinational companies entered the scene.
Keywords: hydrogen fuel, alternative transport fuels, renewable energy implementation, barriers, socio-technical issues, Iceland, geothermal energy, hydrogen economy