Keywords: emergency preparedness, malevolent events, nuclear accidents, International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, nuclear energy, nuclear power plants, risk management, emergency management, emergency response, accident management
IAEA activities related to on-site management and off-site emergency preparedness involving external events including those of malevolent origin
On-site and off-site measures after the occurrence of a nuclear accident are considered the final layers of defence in depth. On-site measures may vary considerably from one event to another depending on the severity of the accident. Off-site emergency response measures also may vary and depending on the emergency situation, they may involve administering of iodine tablets, sheltering and various degrees of evacuation. Responsibility for on-site accident management lies with the nuclear power plant, whereas the off-site emergency response needs to be a coordinated effort involving local and sometimes national authorities, including the regulatory body. These measures are well known and drills take place regularly at nuclear power plants in order to train the persons and organisations involved for good coordination. This paper deals with situations when the 'accident' and the emergency situation are a result of an external event (including the possibility that this event is of malevolent origin).