Keywords: energy, environment, research and development, science, technology
Impact of science and technology on energy and environmental research and development
Countries are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of science and technology in relation to national development and the necessity of formulating a concise science and technology policy. The need for strengthening and orienting the scientific and technological infrastructure in line with national development goals, through more effective use of available qualified manpower and the higher education system, is being widely recognised. This, in turn, generates a need for appropriate methods of assessing the impacts of science and technology on national development so that efforts are concentrated on areas, which could have substantial impact. Numerous cases and planning studies have been undertaken to this end, particularly by some international organisations such as UNESCO, UNIDO, OECD AND IEA. This study deals with the analysis of the interrelationships of disciplines of science and technology with energy and the environment research and development (R&D) activities, particularly for the developing countries. The intimate connections between science and technology, energy and technology, and energy and the environment are discussed in detail along with the basic techniques and methods that can be used, particularly for the developing countries. Some descriptive and illustrative examples are also presented. As a result, it is believed that the present study will serve as a preliminary step for more comprehensive studies by providing an example for the utilization of formal methods in formulating science and technology policy for energy and the environment R&D.