Keywords: ISPS code, port activities, supply chain vulnerability, port security, International Ship and Port Facility Security, port services, port control, unauthorised access, working environment, costs, Sweden
Impacts of the ISPS code on port activities: a case study on Swedish ports
Following the terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers in the USA and the Limburg oil tanker in Yemen, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) agreed to develop new measures relating to the security of ships and port facilities. The impact of the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) code on port activities may have both positive and negative consequences on port services. This paper addresses the impact of the ISPS code from a total port perspective. This case study is based on an electronic questionnaire, which was developed with several qualitative pilot interviews with port security experts. The results are analysed in accordance with the structure of the ISPS code in order to establish the impact the ISPS code has on port activities. The results from this case study clearly indicate that an increasing security level in ports is the most important impact of the code. Better control of the port area, restriction of unauthorised access and a better working environment are examples of the effects that the implementation of the ISPS code entails on port and port activities. In addition to the ISPS's advantages, there are some disadvantages, which can be summarised as higher operative expenses and a high implementation cost.