Keywords: income sources, land use, REDD–plus, East Kalimantan, Indonesia, environmental sustainability, sustainable management, climate change, local people, local communities, preferences, forest management, forests, orchards, rattan gardens, traditional rubber gardens, sustainable development, natural resources, resource conservation
Implications of local peoples' preferences in terms of income source and land use for Indonesia's national REDD–plus policy: evidence in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
This article tries to reveal the field reality in East Kalimantan, especially the preferences of villagers in terms of income source and land use, to ascertain the implications for Indonesia's national REDD–plus policy or one of the emerging regimes under UNFCCC. In forest lands, the villagers have no expectations for labour opportunities involving logging and planting trees in concession areas. In non–forest lands, villagers want to continue practicing swidden agriculture, to expand traditional rubber gardens, and to develop commercialised rubber plantations. They also think that rattan gardens and orchards are important. In order to suppress competition over land used for coal mining and oil palm plantations, to ensure villagers' rights to resources, and to conserve natural resources, it is recommended that Indonesia introduce programmes to support, as REDD–plus activities, the sustainable management of remaining forest and forest–like land uses such as orchards, rattan gardens, and traditional rubber gardens. This study shows the importance of not confining one's perspective to the REDD–plus policy framework determined by the government, but rather evaluating it by checking actual conditions in the field to aid constructive discussion.