Distance to water sources has major implications on per capita water use for Kenya’s arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). About 4,872 household (HH) heads in six ASAL counties of Kenya were identified using probability and non-probability sampling techniques, and pretested structured questionnaire, key informant interviews and focus group discussions administered to them. There are at least seven different water sources, with 49.42 ± 0.36 minutes being the mean walk time for a round trip of water, limiting water access to 17.02 ± 0.17 litres per capita per day (lcd). These statistics have had a result that only 33% of HHs in Kenya’s ASALS have attained the millennium development goal number 7c (MDG7c) on improved water, rendering its achievement by 2015 a myth. As a result, household water use and time taken on a trip for water shows a negative but significant relationship.
Keywords: opportunity cost of fetching water, water burden on children, water burden on women, per capita water use, water access, water sources, water supply, arid Kenya, semi-arid Kenya, improved water source, Kenya