John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Improving reptile ecological risk assessment: Oral and dermal toxicity of pesticides to a common lizard species (Sceloporus occidentalis)

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Reptiles have been understudied in ecotoxicology which limits consideration in ecological risk assessments. The goal of this research was threefold: to improve oral and dermal dosing methodologies for reptiles, to generate reptile toxicity data for pesticides, and to correlate reptile and avian toxicity. We first assessed the toxicity of different dosing vehicles: 100 µL of water, propylene glycol, or acetone were not toxic. We assessed the oral and dermal toxicity of 4 pesticides following the up‐and‐down procedure. Neither brodifacoum nor chlorothalonil caused mortality at doses < 1750 µg/g. Under the “neat pesticide” oral exposure endosulfan (LD50 = 9.8 µg/g) was more toxic than λ‐cyhalothrin (LD50 = 916.5 µg/g). Neither chemical was toxic via dermal exposure. An acetone dosing vehicle increased λ‐cyhalothrin toxicity (oral LD50 = 9.8 µg/g, dermal LD50 = 17.5 µg/g), but not endosulfan. Finally, changes in dosing method and husbandry significantly increased dermal λ‐cyhalothrin LD50s highlighting the importance of standardized methods. We combined our data with other reptile LD50s to correlate with available avian data. When only definitive LD50s were used in the analysis a strong correlation was found between avian and reptile toxicity. Our results suggest it is possible to build predictive relationships between avian and reptile LD50s, but more research is needed to understand trends associated with chemical classes and modes of action. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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