A TCE-contaminated plume developed from buried drums containing organic solvents on the former Duluth Airbase. Soil excavation took place in the early 1990s and a total of 1,925 yds3 of soil were treated through land farming. A few years later, site assessment activities uncovered a VOC plume in groundwater and further monitoring revealed the breakdown of TCE to daughter products cis-DCE and VC within an anaerobic environment. Multiple strategies were investigated to treat the VOC concentrations including pump and treat, phytoremediation, and natural attenuation. An in situ bioremediation pilot scale application using HRC was chosen because of its cost-effectiveness and ease of implementation. A 1.55 acre full-scale application followed.