Magnetic carbon materials that have nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) supported on fish scale based hierarchical lamellar porous carbon (FHLC) is reported in this study. The nZVI on FHLC was in the form of body-centered-cubic iron (Fe) crystal. Although it was demonstrated that the specific surface area (SBET), total pore volume (Vt) and micropore volume (Vm) of the FHLC decreased with the increase of Fe contents, a certain amount of addition of iron nanoparticles on FHLC enhances the Cr(VI) adsorption properties. The as-prepared material shows faster adsorption rate and higher maximum adsorption capacity (357.14 mg/g) compared to bare FHLC (344.83 mg/g). In addition, this magnetic carbon material exhibits a high saturated magnetization (16.49 emu/g). It is indicated that the as-prepared carbon material not only can be used to remove Cr(VI) efficiently but also shows excellent magnetic separation performance from wastewater.