Physical/chemical treatment uses the physical properties of the contaminants or the contaminated medium to destroy (i.e, chemically convert), or separate the contamination. Passive treatment walls separate and destroy the contaminant from in situ ground water. Air sparging, directional wells, dual phase extraction, fluid/vapor extraction, and hot water or steam flushing/stripping are separation techniques.
Available in situ physical/chemical treatment technologies include aeration, air sparging, bioslurping, directional wells, dual phase extraction, fluid/vapor extraction, hot water or steam flushing/stripping, hydrofracturing, in-well air stripping, and passive/reactive treatment walls. Physical/chemical treatment is typically cost effective and can be completed in short time periods (in comparison with biological treatment). Equipment is readily available and is not engineering or energy-intensive. Treatment residuals from separation techniques will require treatment or disposal, which will add to the total project costs and may require permits.