Keywords: premixed CPC, in vitro evaluation, in vivo evaluation, rats, injectable CPC, mesenchymal stem cells, MSC, calcium phosphate cement, immunological response, brushite, monetite, cell viability, biocompatibility, pH variation, simulated body fluid, inflammation, premixed cements
In vitro and in vivo evaluation of an injectable premixed calcium phosphate cement; cell viability and immunological response from rat
By using premixed calcium phosphate cement (CPC) the handling properties of the cement are drastically improved, which is a challenge for traditional injectable CPC. In this article, a premixed acidic CPC has been compared to a conventional water mixed brushite cement to evaluate whether the premixed concept affects the biological response. The cements were evaluated regarding the pH-variation in simulated body fluid (SBF). Further, the biocompatibility of the cement with human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) was studied in vitro and eventual inflammation properties studied in vivo, after subcutaneous material injections in rats. A larger pH decrease was seen for the conventional cement than the premixed cement in SBF. For both materials, > 90% of the MSC remained alive in vitro. No systemic or macroscopic inflammation was detected, only a mild microscopic inflammation was detected around both materials. In addition to the handling benefit of premixed cements compared to conventional water mixed CPC, the premixed CPC in the present study demonstrated high and in comparison to conventional CPC comparable biocompability, both in vitro and in vivo.