The World Bank

Industrial Estates Industry - Pollution Prevention Guidelines


Courtesy of The World Bank


Pollution Prevention Guidelines to provide technical advice and guidance to staff and consultants involved in pollution-related projects. The guidelines represent state-of-the-art thinking on how to reduce pollution emissions from the production process. In many cases, the guidelines provide numerical targets for reducing pollution, as well as maximum emissions levels that are normally achievable through a combination of cleaner production and end-of-pipe treatment. The guidelines are designed to protect human health; reduce mass loadings to the environment; draw on commercially proven technologies; be cost-effective; follow current regulatory trends; and promote good industrial practices, which offer greater productivity and increased energy efficiency.

Table of Contents

  • Industry Description and Practices
  • Waste Characteristics
  • Pollution Prevention and Control
  • Target Pollution Loads
  • Treatment Technologies
  • Emissions Guidelines
  • Monitoring and Reporting
  • Key Issues
  • Sources

Industrial Estate Development

Industrial estates are specific areas zoned for industrial activity in which infrastructure such as roads, power, and other utility services is provided to facilitate the growth of industries and to minimize impacts on the environment. The infrastructure may include effluent treatment; solid and toxic waste collection, treatment, and disposal; air pollution and effluent monitoring; technical services on pollution prevention; quality management (quality assurance and control); and laboratory services. There should be appropriate emergency preparedness and prevention plans and liaison with local fire and emergency services.

This document covers the management of activities on an established estate. Selection of sites for industrial estates should take into account social and environmental issues, as well as economic considerations. The key document would normally be an industrial estate development plan covering issues such as:

  • Details of the location
  • Mix of industries on the site (to ensure that the industries are compatible—for example, that neighbors of food processing plants do not pose a risk of contaminating food products)
  • Layout and design
  • Transport services
  • Fuel storage
  • Air quality management
  • Water quality management, including the provision of common effluent treatment facilities, as required
  • Solid waste management, including recycling
  • Management of hazardous materials and hazardous wastes
  • Noise control
  • Occupational health and safety
  • Hazard and emergency planning and response.

Industrial estates should maintain safe distances from residential areas (for example, 100 meters for small industries with minimal environmental hazard and at least 1 kilometer for very polluting industries). Definition of institutional responsibilities is an essential component of a development plan. The key environmental issues to be addressed in the development plan should be identified through an environmental assessment process.

Pretreatment and Common Treatment

A significant environmental benefit of industrial estates is the opportunity to take advantage of economies of scale by providing common effluent and waste management facilities. Individual units. however, must still meet specific discharge or pretreatment guidelines. The guidelines at a particular estate will depend on the industry mix and the type and scale of common facilities. The guidelines for each plant should be described in detail as part of the plant’s contract with the estate.

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