John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Influence of temperature on fluoride toxicity and bioaccumulation in the nonindigenous freshwater mollusc Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1769

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Fluoride toxicity and bioaccumulation tests (short‐ and long‐term) were performed on the nonindigenous freshwater mollusc Dreissena polymorpha at two different temperatures: 17 ± 0.5°C and 22 ± 0.5°C. Concentrations that did not result in toxicity in short‐term experiments (96 h) induced effects over a longer period (17 weeks), especially at the warmest temperature, highlighting the role of this parameter. Fluoride bioaccumulation increased linearly with increasing concentration and temperature, reaching 4,202 µg F–/g dry weight in soft tissues only after 48 h of exposure at 22°C at a concentration of 640 mg F–/L. Comparing tolerance to fluoride and bioaccumulation values of this species with those of other freshwater invertebrates, D. polymorpha was much more resistant and revealed its capacity to accumulate a great quantity of this xenobiotic substance. Our results demonstrated that fluoride accumulation in the soft tissue of this animal was much higher (up to 1,409.6 µg F–/g dry wt) than that in its shell (up to 706.4 µg F–/g dry wt). If we consider this datum and the fact that D. polymorpha is widespread in many aquatic ecosystems around the world, representing a food source for many birds and other vertebrates, we have to acknowledge the possibility that it can represent a serious danger in view of fluoride biomagnification in the aquatic environment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2012 SETAC

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