Keywords: energy R&, amp, D, research and development, renewable energy, innovation, R&, amp, D intensity, energy security, energy policy, energy efficiency, transformational R&, amp, D
Innovating the innovators: the case for transformational energy Research and Development
This paper asks three interconnected questions: What type of energy R&D promotes long-term, transformative innovation? Which types of research do energy R&D organisations predominately practice? What are the consequences of their approaches? The paper begins by distinguishing between incremental and transformative R&D. Then, it documents five emerging energy challenges facing the USA and the world. Using the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a case study, it next explores whether that organisation is more dedicated to promoting incremental innovation or transformative change. The article concludes by offering some preliminary implications for American and international energy policy.