Keywords: silvichemical biomass, heavy metals, metal removal, biosorption, wastewater treatment, ion exchange, water pollution
Innovative use of silvichemical biomass and its derivatives for heavy metal sorption from wastewater
Biosorption is a process of metabolism-independent, passive, physico-chemical binding of metal ions involving non-living biomass, which offers advantages over conventional methods because of cost-effectiveness, especially for dilute metal solutions, and minimal environmental impact. This paper reviews heavy metal biosorption using silvichemical-based biomass materials. It discusses the use of a wide range of silvichemical biomasses and their derivatives for heavy metal removal from single and multi-metal systems. The structures and properties of silvichemical biomasses as well as methods of biosorbent pretreatment and immobilisation are evaluated. Metal biosorption mechanisms and binding sites, selective biosorption and biosorbent reuse and regeneration are also addressed.