Keywords: industrial symbiosis, industrial ecology, blast furnace slag, green liquor dregs, GLD, slaker grits, fibre clay, lime wastes, cement, fibre reinforced concrete products, fertiliser, industrial residues, industrial waste, sustainability, sustainable development, materials flow, steel industry, paper and pulp industry
Innovative use potential of industrial residues from the steel, paper and pulp industries - a preliminary study
A more holistic approach to the utilisation of process industry residues is a major theme of current research. The beneficial utilisation of industrial residues, as a logical step towards the goal of sustainability through sustainable development, is crystallised within the concept of industrial symbiosis (IS). The reduction of environmental impacts, including CO2 emissions from industrial production by encouraging the utilisation of raw materials and process residues with smaller emission footprints is a current mitigation option. Through the lens of materials flow systems thinking provided by industrial symbiosis, we have arrived at fruitful research opportunities in steel, pulp and paper mill waste, by-product and residues' utilisation that can enhance the development of larger and more diverse industrial symbiosis systems. We present a literature review and rationale for the inter-industry utilisation of residues between the steel, pulp and paper sectors, proposing a spectrum of residue-based product concepts for further research.