Inorganic and Carbonaceous Components in Indoor/Outdoor Particulate Matter in Two Residential Houses in Oslo, Norway

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A detailed analysis of indoor/outdoor physicochemical aerosol properties has been performed. Aerosol measurements
were taken at two dwellings, one in the city center and the other in the suburbs of the Oslo metropolitan
area, during summer/fall and winter/spring periods of 2002–2003. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the
chemical characteristics (water-soluble ions and carbonaceous components) of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5–10)
particles and their indoor/outdoor relationship. Results demonstrate that the carbonaceous species were dominant
in all fractions of the PM10 particles (cut off size: 0.09–11.31 m) during all measurement periods, except
winter 2003, when increased concentrations of watersoluble inorganic ions were predominant because of sea
salt transport. The concentration of organic carbon was higher in the fine and coarse PM10 fractions indoors,
whereas elemental carbon was higher indoors only in the coarse fraction. In regards to the carbonaceous species,
local traffic and secondary organic aerosol formation were, probably, the main sources outdoors, whereas indoors
combustion activities such as preparation of food, burning of candles, and cigarette smoking were the main
sources. In contrast, the concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions were higher outdoors than indoors. The variability of water-soluble inorganic ion concentrations outdoors was related to changes in emissions from local
anthropogenic sources, long-range transport of particles, sea salt emissions, and resuspension of roadside and soil
dusts. In the indoor environment the infiltration of the outdoor air indoors was the major source of inorganic

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