Keywords: peri-urban catchment, land management, water resources management, land occupation, legislation, Brazil, mega-cities, water management, water availability, water quality
Institutional arrangements for articulating land and water management in peri-urban catchment: example of the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil
The development of mega-cities exerts an increasing pressure on water resources in their peri-urban areas. Rapid changes in land use in these areas, characterised by the specific hydrologic functions they provide for the city, has resulted in increased pressures on water availability and quality. In the past, the traditional dual (urban/rural) focus of the institutions, their preference for sectorial legislation, and end-to-pipe technological responses have not been able to deal with these tensions in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, in the context of high social inequalities, uncoordinated metropolitan sectorial policies, and insufficient monitoring and control. New institutional arrangements based on democratic and territorial management of water resources are promoting a new vision on planning, and better integration on land and water management. Their efficient implementation may require a better definition of specific instruments to sustain economical compatible activities, facilitate metropolitan coordination and support the participation of the marginalised communities living on the edge of the city.