John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Integrating transcriptomics into triad‐based soil quality assessment

The present study examined how transcriptomics tools can be included in a Triad‐based soil quality assessment to assess the toxicity of soils from river banks polluted by metals. To that end we measured chemical soil properties and used the standardized ISO guideline for ecotoxicological tests and a newly developed microarray for gene expression in the indicator soil arthropod, Folsomia candida. Microarray analysis revealed that the oxidative stress response pathway was significantly affected in all soils except one. The data indicate that changes in cell redox homeostasis are a significant signature of metal stress. Finally, 32 genes showed significant dose‐dependent expression with metal concentrations. They are promising genetic markers providing an early indication of the need for higher tier testing in soil quality. During the bioassay, the toxicity of the least polluted soils could be removed by sterilization. The gene expression profile for this soil did not show a metal‐related signature, confirming that another factor than metals (most likely of biological origin) caused the toxicity. The present study demonstrates the feasibility and advantages of integrating transcriptomics into Triad‐based soil quality assessment. Combining molecular and organismal life‐history trait's stress responses helps identifying causes of adverse effect in bioassays. Further validation is needed for verifying the set of genes with dose‐dependent expression patterns linked with toxic stress. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC

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