John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Inter‐ and intra‐species chemical sensitivity: A case study using 2,4‐dinitroanisole

Insensitive munitions (IMs) offer increased safety due to their “insensitivity” to unintended detonation relative to historically used formulations such as 2,4,6‐trinitrotoluene (TNT). Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is an IM constituent, and its solubility and stability warrant investigations of potential toxicological hazard related to manufacturing discharges and training ranges. While ecotoxicology data are available for other IM constituents, few data are available for DNAN. In the present study, acute and chronic exposures of a fish (Pimephales promelas) and 2 cladocerans (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia pulex) were conducted. The acute median lethality (LC50) of DNAN ranged from 14.2 to 42.0 mg/L, depending on species. In chronic exposures, fish survival (LC50 = 10.0 mg/L) was more sensitive than cladoceran survival (LC50 = 13.7 to >24.2 mg/L). However, cladoceran reproduction was equally or more sensitive to DNAN (50% inhibition values ranging from 2.7 to 10.6 mg/L, depending on species) than fish endpoints. Daphnia pulex was the most sensitive species, with only slight differences between 3 populations tested. While the aquatic toxicity of DNAN was lower than previously reported in the literature for TNT, future research is needed to determine potential synergistic toxicity of all the constituents in IMX mixtures and the implications of photo‐oxidation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved

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