John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Interactive effects of lambda‐cyhalothrin, soil moisture and temperature on Folsomia candida and Sinella curviseta (Collembola)

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Our investigation centered around the aim of whether and how two environmental factors could influence the toxicity of a pyrethroid to two representatives of an important group of soil organisms. The impacts of different temperatures (20°C and 26°C) and soil moisture levels (30%, 50% and 70% of the water holding capacity) were investigated in combination with the insecticide lambda‐cyhalothrin on the reproduction success of Folsomia candida and Sinella curviseta in a full factorial design. Testing was based on the standard collembolan reproduction test (Organisation for Economic Co‐operation and Development, OECD, Guideline 232) following an ECx design (Effect Concentration). The results showed an effect of environmental and chemical factors on the number of juveniles of these animals. Particularly in dry soil, the reproduction of both species was reduced while higher soil moisture levels influenced the number of juveniles positively compared to the middle soil moisture level. Yet, higher soil moisture led in general to an increased sensitivity to lambda‐cyhalothrin. In both organisms temperature affected the toxicity of the pesticide, but in different directions: high temperature led to higher toxicity in the case of F. candida, but to lower toxicity in case of S. curviseta. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2013 SETAC

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