Keywords: Germany, mittelstand firms, international orientation, marketing mix, performance, SMEs, small and medium–sized enterprises, firm performance, company performance
International orientation, marketing mix, and the performance of international German 'mittelstand' companies
This article presents an empirical study of the impact of international orientation and marketing mix on the performance of the German 'mittelstand' that operate internationally. The article discusses and compares three different concepts of international orientation. As international orientation has an important influence on contacts with customers, the study examines the relationship between international orientation and marketing, and its effects on performance. The study tests this relationship for 259 internationally operating small and medium–sized businesses based in Germany. The results show that the companies in the study are predominantly geocentrically–oriented, and that a company's coordination of its international orientation and marketing mix has a substantial impact on company performance.