Invasion of a top predator into an epipelagic ecosystem can bring a paradoxical top-down trophic control

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We apply mathematical modeling to explore different scenarios of invasion of a top predator (carnivorous zooplankton or planktivorous fish) into an epipelagic plankton ecosystem. We use a ‘minimal’ model of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations (nutrient–phytoplankton–herbivores) with the top predator density as a time-dependent parameter. The ecosystem shows different types of response, which can be described in terms of top-down trophic control.

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