Keywords: investment costs, operating costs, wastewater treatment plants, China, wastewater fees, activated sludge, water quality, energy costs
Investment and operating costs of municipal wastewater treatment plants in China
The municipal wastewater treatment will continue to be intensified in China due to the economic development and the poor water quality. Within four years, the number of wastewater treatment plants has doubled. Before 2000, mostly plants without nitrogen and phosphorous removal were built. Since Chinese laws require strict effluent qualities, many plants were built with nitrification/denitrification and phosphorous removal. Regarding the investment costs, no significant change occurred during 1994-2000, if the different treatment technologies are taken into account separately. The operating costs of WWTP are highly dominated by energy costs, which can be reduced by optimising the operating procedures.