air toxics Articles

  • ISO Standard describes aerosol generation for air exposure studies of nano-objects and their aggregates and agglomerates

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recently published standard ISO/TR 19601:2017, “Nanotechnologies — Aerosol generation for air exposure studies of nano-objects and their aggregates and agglomerates (NOAA).”  ISO states that, to evaluate the inhalation toxicity of NOAA, it is important to consider certain ...


    By Bergeson & Campbell, P.C.

  • Chromium toxicity

    Chromium, in the form of unidentified chromium compounds, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust and is widely distributed in air, water, soil, and food. Chromium (3+) is an essential trace element in humans. The general population is exposed to some chromium (6+) compounds, but the levels of exposure vary. Environmental exposure specifically to chromium(6+) compounds is difficult to quantify, ...


    By Valahia University

  • A quick guide to oil analysis for engine test applications

    Reliability testing is a very important component of new engine development. Engineers need to fully understand and chart the engine lifetime performance under a variety of conditions before mass production may be considered. Many important performance data parameters are collected in real time through the many different types of sensors that are connected to the engine in the test cell and oil ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Ambient Air Quality Analysis of Toxic Gases and Priority

    The EPA regional offices who continuously monitor ambient air quality have determined that combustion by-products and automobile exhaust make up the largest source of air pollution throughout the U.S., with more severe conditions existing overseas. Despite concerns about the conditions outdoors, air quality in the workplace and home environment receive even more attention. The EPA’s list of ...


    By Buck Scientific Inc

  • Background Concentrations of 18 Air Toxics for North America

    ABSTRACT Of the 188 hazardous air pollutants, or 'air toxics,' identified by the U.S. Clean Air Act, 18 were targeted as the most important in a 10-city pilot study conducted in 2001 and 2002 as part of the National Air Toxics Trend Sites Program. This paper describes the pilot study. The U.S. Clean Air Act identifies 188 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), or “air toxics,” associated with ...

  • The possible toxic effects of lead

    Lead is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Pb (Latin: plumbum) and atomic number 82. A soft, heavy, toxic and malleable lead is bluish white when freshly cut but tarnishes to dull gray when exposed to air, very dense metal which is very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a relatively poor conductor of electricity. It is odourless. It is highly resistant to corrosion ...


    By Valahia University

  • Citizens, engineers and air toxics: citizen participation in technology based standard setting

    This article analyses the potential for involving state and local citizen groups in technology-based standard setting for air toxics under the l990 US Clean Air Act. Congress hoped that by focusing on technology rather than risk that the standard setting process would be less contentious. This has not turned out to be the case. There are a number of points where scientists and engineers make ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Dispersion modelling of toxic air pollutants from fossil fuel combustion facilities

    The emissions of toxic air pollutants from three power plants and one oil refinery were measured for a period of six months and dispersion of pollutants were calculated by using Air Dispersion Modelling Software (ADMS–4). The plume concentration of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide and particulate matter were calculated over long distances to estimate the incremental ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Canarina DISPER Software · air toxics dispersion model · algorithms 7

      Canarina DISPER Software · air toxics dispersion model   9.1.2 Downwind and Crosswind Distances  The model uses a Cartesian receptor network. All receptor points are converted to Cartesian (X,Y) coordinates ...

  • Toxic formaldehyde very common in homes

    EMSL Analytical provides formaldehyde testing solutions for industry and the public. Formaldehyde can be found in most homes across the country. The chemical is commonly used to manufacture numerous building materials and household items. The most significant source of formaldehyde in most homes is from pressed wood products made with formaldehyde containing adhesives. According to the EPA, “High ...


  • Biofilter Removal of VOCs and Toxics from Airborne Emissions

    Abstract Sewage treatment plants can emit significant quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and toxic air contaminants, but emission control by conventional methods has been difficult to achieve. The biofilter technology developed in a previous contract can satisfactorily control emissions from these plants and possibly from other sources of high-volume, low-concentration emissions ...


  • Follow toxic gas standards for a smoother project

    Toxic gases, such as Hydrogen Sulfide and Sulfur Dioxide, can injure and kill quickly. Therefore, mitigation of these hazards must be fast and sure. The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and other authorities take detection of these gases very seriously. The American National Standards Institute/ American Petroleum Institute (ANSI/API) and ISA industry standards ...

  • Accidental Releases Analysis for Toxic Aqueous Solutions

    As a result of the cluster rule for the control of the hazardous air pollutants, pulp and paper mills are in the process of further substituting chlorine with aqueous chlorine dioxide for their bleaching operations. In addition, ammonia aqueous solutions are applied by paper mills in various processes. An evaporation model including both heat and mass transfer for aqueous solutions has been ...

  • Reactor modeling in heterogeneous photocatalysis: toxicity and biodegradability assessment

    Photocatalysis employing titanium dioxide is a useful method to degrade a wide variety of organic and inorganic pollutants from water and air. However, the application of this advanced oxidation process at industrial scale requires the development of mathematical models to design and scale-up photocatalytic reactors. In the present work, intrinsic kinetic expressions previously obtained in a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Accidental releases analysis for toxic aqueous solutions

    Abstract As a result of the cluster rule for the control of the hazardous air pollutants, pulp and paper mills are in the process of further substituting chlorine with aqueous chlorine dioxide for their bleaching operations. In addition, ammonia aqueous solutions are applied by paper mills in various processes. An evaporation model including both heat and mass transfer for aqueous ...


    By Trinity Consultants

  • Inhalation Health Risk Assessment of Air Toxic Emissions from Large Combustion Turbine Power Projects

    Power generation from combustion turbine projects continues to grow throughout the world. With natural gas as the most common primary fuel, and low-sulfur #2 oil as the backup fuel, combustion turbines are among the cleanest forms of fossil power generation. This paper discusses the results of a preliminary inhalation health risk assessment of air toxic emissions from four power plant ...

  • The impact of urban areas on the deposition of air toxics to adjacent surface waters: A mass budget of PCBs in Lake Michigan in 1994

    The impact of urban air toxics on the proximate water bodies was investigated as part of the AEOLOS Project (Atmospheric Exchange Over Lakes and Oceans). The hypothesis of this project was that emissions of hazardous air pollutants into the coastal urban atmosphere increased atmospheric depositional fluxes to proximate Great Waters. Areas of major field and modeling campaigns were located in ...


    By Springer

  • Criteria and Air-Toxic Emissions from In-Use Automobiles in the National Low-Emission Vehicle Program

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implemented a program to identify tailpipe emissions of criteria and air-toxic contaminants from in-use, lightduty low-emission vehicles (LEVs). EPA recruited 25 LEVs in 2002 and measured emissions on a chassis dynamometer using the cold-start urban dynamometer driving schedule of the Federal Test Procedure. The emissions measured included regulated ...

  • Measurement of Toxic and Related Air Pollutants - Field-Emplaceable Air Samplers for Automated Ambient, Site, and IAQ Use (Including TO-17 Applications)

    Abstract Air samples taken on collection media for laboratory analysis remain a highly sensitive and cost-effective means of assessment. However, collection of samples can be difficult using nonautomated samplers, particularly over long terms or at remote locations. This paper describes a number of automated air samplers for sorbent-tube and filter use. The samplers are batterypowered, portable ...


  • EPA mercury rules: Keeping the lights on while removing toxics from our air

    Next week the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is expected to finalize new rules to reduce mercury and other toxic air emissions that will affect dozens of antiquated power plants currently operating without pollution controls. These rules have stirred debate in some circles as to whether retrofitting or retiring outdated plants will cause shortfalls in electricity capacity. How will new EPA ...

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