anemometer Articles

  • Orthogonal probe performance from a non-orthogonal sonic anemometer

    1. Introduction In the spring of 2014 we conducted an experiment in the backyard of Applied Technologies, Inc. comparing the performance of two of our sonic anemometers, the orthogonal K-Probe and the non-orthogonal A-Probe (Zimmerman et al., 2014). We were responding to concerns in the sonic anemometer user community about the reliability of vertical velocity measurements in the ...

  • Ultrasonic wind sensor for smart wind turbine control - Polaris / USA - Case Study

    The American wind turbine manufacturer Polaris trusts for their wind turbine applications anemometers from Lufft. Over 50 wind turbines have already been equipped with our ultrasonic anemometers Ventus-UMB and V200A-UMB. Crucial in these applications is a high degree of precision and a long, maintenance-free useful life. In addition, controlling of the turbine complex requires a high frequency of ...


    By OTT HydroMet

  • Effects of averaging time on predicted gas concentrations

    The potential consequences of a particular gaseous emission usually relate to a specific averaging time. However, the averaging time associated with gas monitoring data in the region of a discharge may differ from the averaging time implicit in a model employed to predict the concentration resulting from that emission. Tables of factors exist for taking account of such differences and recent ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Sonic Thermometry

    Sonic anemometers have had extensive use in the scientific community. These instruments are used to measure atmospheric parameters that most rotating instruments cannot. Wind speed and wind direction or individual axes of wind velocity are most commonly measured. Along with these measurements, another parameter can be extracted from the sonic anemometer (i.e.), sonic temperature. Since the ...

  • Minimizing flow distortion errors in a sonic anemometer

    This paper describes a simple approach to minimizing probe-induced flow distortion errors in a three-axis sonic anemometer. By separating the three axes, mutual interference between the transducers and supports in the three arrays is reduced. Only a transducer shadow correction determined from wind tunnel tests is needed to obtain measurements that are virtually insensitive to probe orientation ...

  • Flow-distortion errors in a non-orthogonal sonic anemometer

    Part 1 - UNDERSTANDING NON-ORTHOGONAL SONIC ANEMOMETERS Non-orthogonal sonic anemometers have been around for about twenty years. We define them as having three measurement axes inclined at an angle of 60 deg to the horizontal and intersecting at their midpoints to form a small sampling volume. The open aspect of the array was immediately appealing to users. There are several makes on ...

  • Weather measurement in extreme conditions - Whistler Mountain - Case Study

    Whistler Blackcomb mountain is a premiere winter resort in British Columbia Canada. Some months ago our subsidiary "LufftUSA" installed the first Ventus-UMB ultrasonic anemometer atop a main ski lift on the Whistler mountain. The first winter storm passed leaving the entire mountain and all mechanical equipment covered in snow and ice... except the Ventus-UMB. The Ventus-UMB continued to give ...


    By OTT HydroMet

  • Canarina DISPER software · anaerobic digestion · commands 28

    The necessary data in the Meteorology command is:   Pasquill stability): Classification scheme that describes the degree of atmospheric turbulence. Categories range from extremely unstable (A=1) to extremely stable (F=6). Unstable conditions ...

  • Orthogonal and non-orthogonal sonic anemometers compared

    1. Introduction The performance of non-orthogonal sonic anemometers has been the subject of much discussion in recent years. It followed findings that they underestimated vertical winds and vertical heat fluxes by 10-15%. For agricultural and forestry scientists who depended on them for their large-scale energy balance studies this was a bad surprise. They had collected turbulence data ...

  • Wind101A – Wind Units Set-Up and Troubleshooting

    The Wind101A comes programmed with an engineering unit to provide the average wind speed using a 10 second reading rate. If a different reading interval is desired, a different engineering unit must be created to properly scale pulses to wind speed. Note: these instructions assume that the Comptus anemometer from the Wind101A kit is being used.  If it is any other sensor, the instructions ...


    By MadgeTech, Inc.

  • 3D Printed Anemometer (Wind Speed Sensor)

    Build Your Own Anemometer? Good anemometers can be expensive. Numerous do-it-yourself versions can be found on the Internet and are made with various components from paper cups to PVC pipe fittings. There are even some 3D printed designs that emulate molded or machined anemometers, but are typically very fragile. The electronics for do-it-yourself weather instrument are often ...


    By Dyacon, Inc.

  • Lufft WS200 wind sensors on a research station in the Antarctica - Case Study

    Base Orcadas is an Argentine scientific research station in the Antarctica. It is located on Laurie Island, one of the South Orkney Islands (Spanish: Islas Orcadas del Sur), at 4 meters (13.1 ft) above sea level and 170 meters (558 ft) from the coastline and is the oldest one there which is still in operation. The nearest port is the Argentine city of Ushuaia, which is 1,502 km (933 mi) away. ...


    By OTT HydroMet

  • Understanding non-orthogonal sonic anemometers

    Non-orthogonal sonic anemometers have been around for about twenty years. We define them as having three measurement axes inclined at an angle of 60 deg to the horizontal and intersecting at their midpoints to form a small sampling volume. The open aspect of the array was immediately appealing to users. There are several makes on the market and each solved the problem of holding the transducers ...

  • Why Does the Non-Orthogonal Sonic Anemometer Underestimate

    The performance of non-orthogonal sonic anemometers has been the subject of much discussion in recent years.  It followed findings that they underestimated vertical winds and vertical heat fluxes by 10-15%.  For agricultural and forestry scientists who depended on them for their large-scale energy balance studies this was a bad surprise.  They had collected turbulence data from ...

  • Canarina DISPER software · environmental impact of pesticides · commands 11

    We will show you a typical calculation diagram: a Stack (point source) in elevated terrain. zi=mixing height hs=snack height he=plume height ha=anemometer height zr=calculation plane height where Dh is the effective plume height.In the line and area source cases, we have that the effective plume height is zero (Dh=0). For example: Canarina DISPER software ...

  • Basic tests for checking validity of field data

    The following guidelines are suggested for verifying micrometeorological data gathered in field experiments. It is assumed, for simplicity, that the observations being tested are made over open, relatively flat and uniform terrain, with small roughness elements. It is also assumed that the sensors and the data acquisition and recording hardware are basically sound and that the purpose of the ...

  • Some thoughts on in-situ flux measurement in the atmospheric surface layer

    Due to its complexity, the state of a turbulent atmosphere can only be described using statistical quantities such as means, variances, and covariances. Computation of these statistical quantities, particularly those of higher order, must be done with considerable care. This is particularly true if the statistics are used to depict heat and momentum fluxes. This note contains considerations that ...

  • Verification of wind energy related measurements with a SODAR system

    Abstract Complex terrain and growing wind energy converters (WEC) in wind parks generate increasing interest in determining wind profiles and turbulence besides the general forecast of annual energy production. Increasing hub heights and growing rotor diameters of advanced WEC make SODAR systems a valuable alternative to meteorological towers. SODAR systems provide wind profiles as well as ...

  • Effects of spatial filtering, prefiltering, and aliasing in measurements from applied technologies` Sonic K-Probe

    The Applied Technologies' Inc. (ATI) K-probe measures wind components along three mutually orthogonal axes separated spatially from each other to minimize flow distortion errors. The sonic anemometer samples the wind at a 100-Hz rate but constructs 0.1-s (10-point) non-overlapping block averages to provide. a 10-Hz data train for internal processing. This digital prefiltering is designed to ...

  • Another look at sonic thermometry

    Abstract. In this note we reassess the role of sonic thermometry in boundary-layer studies. The sonic temperature signal, when corrected for crosswind velocity contamination, very closely approximates the virtual temperature of air. This variable is needed for many boundary-layer calculations. We describe preliminary tests with a new sonic anemometer-thermometer that performs the velocity ...

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