basic sanitation Articles

  • The MobiSan approach: informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    Pook se Bos informal settlement and the Cape Town Water & Sanitation Services Department are partnering on an urban sanitation project with a Dutch Consortium consisting of Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF), Landustrie Sneek and Vitens-Evides International. The aim of the project is to improve the basic sanitation services provided in informal settlements through the implementation of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Basic sanitation and hygiene for all! Solutions for reaching the unreached

    As the count down towards 2015 gathers momentum, there is a growing realization that progress in sanitation and hygiene has bypassed many millions, especially those who are already traditionally left out. The discussions around the targets for post-2015 and for the WWF have therefore emphasized the attainment of sanitation and hygiene for all. This implies that future interventions need to focus ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Decision-making criteria and indicators for water and sanitation projects in developing countries

    Water and sanitation projects for solving the needs of small communities in developing countries are complex in nature and involve complex decision-making, which must consider technical, socio-economic and environmental dimensions. Multicriteria analysis (MCA) is a suitable decision-aid method that scores a finite number of options on the basis of a set of evaluation criteria. The main challenge ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries

    Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people's health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Commentary on community-led total sanitation and human rights: should the right to community-wide health be won at the cost of individual rights?

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) set out to halve the proportion of the population without access to basic sanitation between 1990 and 2015. The slow pace of progress has lead to a search for innovative responses, including social motivation approaches. One example of this type of approach is ‘Community-led Total Sanitation’ (CLTS). CLTS represents a major shift for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tackling the neglected issues of sanitation and hygiene

    Problems with Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries Sanitation and hygiene continue to be overlooked, with severe consequences for the health, education, and economic prospects of a large proportion of the world’s population.  Around 40 per cent of people worldwide (2.6 billion) do not have access to a safe toilet, and nearly 20 per cent (1.1 billion) defecate in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water and sanitation issues for persons with disabilities in low- and middle-income countries: a literature review and discussion of implications for global health and international development

    The critical importance of unrestricted access to clean drinking water and basic sanitation for all is highlighted in Millennium Development Goal 7, which calls for the reduction by half of the proportion of people without such access by 2015. Unfortunately, little attention has been paid to the needs of such access for the one billion people living with a disability worldwide, despite the fact ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Learning from the MDGs: Improved sanitation and drainage in cities

    The water MDG was widely acknowledged as the furthest from delivering against its objective, with criticism largely levelled at Target 7.C, which aimed to 'halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation'.  Across two issues of the journal, 22 papers tackle ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Missing the Millennium Development Goal targets for water and sanitation in urban areas

    "This paper reviews progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for water and sanitation in urban areas. Drawing on UN data, it shows the disastrous performance of many low- and middle-income nations in relation to the goal of halving the proportion without drinking water sources piped on premises and improved sanitation between 1990 and 2015. It also describes how even such a poor ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Scenarios for environmental sanitation in Brazil

    Public sector planning, especially in developing countries, is both a theoretical and methodological challenge that is particularly important with regard to the field of environmental sanitation. This field is dominated by a technical vision that often ignores the complexity of the real world and the human dimension influenced by its actions, as opposed to a strategic one. This paper discusses ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Transforming potential conflict into cooperation potential: the role of international water law

    International river basins cover more than half of the land’s surface. With nearly 300 major watercourses shared by two or more states and ever-increasing demand on the world’s diminishing water resources, there may be some justification in the assertion by certain commentators that “water wars” are imminent in the near future. The UN forecasts that more than half of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Operator Partnerships: What are they?

    Experienced water operators, donors, financiers and water authorities are challenged to assist the thousands of public water operators that are in urgent need of improving their services. Partnerships between operators present a way to improve and extend basic water and sanitation services to all consumers. A WOP is defined as any form of simple or structured ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Safe greywater reuse to augment water supply and provide sanitation in semi-arid areas of rural India

    Water reuse is recognized as a tool to increase water supply in peri-urban areas of semi-arid and arid regions of the world. However, it is an option rarely explored for rural areas in developing countries, and has not been documented extensively in the scientific literature. This paper presents results from 6 greywater reuse systems which were built with the objective to augment water supply and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • How can Local authorities lead local sanitation planning strategies, by involving all stakeholders?

    1.2.6. By 2020, at least 500 additional urban, peri-urban and rural local authorities will have adopted and implemented, by involving local stakeholders, local strategy and action plans that cover all components of the sanitation chain and are in accordance with a national comprehensive strategic sanitation plan and priorities. Sanitation is a basic service to be organized and implement at local ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Innovative sanitation approaches could address multiple development challenges

    Globally, more than 60% of the human population live without safely managed sanitation services or even lack access to basic sanitation facilities. In addition, most of the wastewater produced in the world is discharged without proper treatment. Integrated approaches are needed to address these issues and curb the resulting adverse impacts on public health and the environment, and associated ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Safer water, better health

    Ensuring poor people’s access to safe drinking-water and adequate sanitation and encouraging personal, domestic and community hygiene will improve the quality of life of millions of individuals. Better managing water resources to reduce the transmission of vector-borne diseases (such as viral diseases carried by mosquitoes) and to make water bodies safe for recreational and other users can save ...

  • Solid waste management in Minas Gerais - Brazil (a system for developing countries)

    Minas Gerais is located in the southwest of Brazil. It has 856 municipalities and a total population of 16,674,000 inhabitants. Belo Horizonte, the capital of the state, has 2,100,000 inhabitants with a standard of living similar to many other industrialised cities in the world. However, this condition is not found in the majority of the other municipalities of the state. In Minas Gerais, 82% of ...


    By ORBIT e.V.

  • Heat Sanitization Basics

    Even small numbers of bacteria are a problem for critical water systems like pharmaceutical USP water, dialysis water, and water for ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • An assessment of microbiological water quality of six water source categories in north-east Uganda

    Target 7C of the Millennium Development Goals is to “halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation”. However, the corresponding indicator measures the “proportion of population using an improved drinking water source”. This raises the question of whether “safe” and “improved” can be used interchangeably. This paper tests this ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • SISAR: a sustainable management model for small rural decentralized water and wastewater systems in developing countries

    Investments for basic rural sanitation programs should not only focus on the construction of new installations, but also on the necessity of implementing proper management models that guarantee the operational and financial sustainability of the investments. The integrated rural sanitation system (SISAR) is based on the idea of creating a confederation of local user groups which come together ...


    By IWA Publishing

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