basic sanitation Articles

  • Heat Sanitization Basics

    Even small numbers of bacteria are a problem for critical water systems like pharmaceutical USP water, dialysis water, and water for ...


    By SnowPure Water Technologies

  • Basic sanitation and hygiene for all! Solutions for reaching the unreached

    As the count down towards 2015 gathers momentum, there is a growing realization that progress in sanitation and hygiene has bypassed many millions, especially those who are already traditionally left out. The discussions around the targets for post-2015 and for the WWF have therefore emphasized the attainment of sanitation and hygiene for all. This implies that future interventions need to focus ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Scenarios for environmental sanitation in Brazil

    Public sector planning, especially in developing countries, is both a theoretical and methodological challenge that is particularly important with regard to the field of environmental sanitation. This field is dominated by a technical vision that often ignores the complexity of the real world and the human dimension influenced by its actions, as opposed to a strategic one. This paper discusses ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Building Sustainable Sanitation Systems

    A low cost system of resource management such as composting toilets is helping to mitigate many of Haiti’s social and ecological challenges. The Caribbean Republic of Haiti — the poorest, most environmentally degraded country in the Western Hemisphere with a population of about 10 million — is a case study in forestry and soil fertility mismanagement. A colonial ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries

    Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people's health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tackling the neglected issues of sanitation and hygiene

    Problems with Sanitation and Hygiene in Developing Countries Sanitation and hygiene continue to be overlooked, with severe consequences for the health, education, and economic prospects of a large proportion of the world’s population.  Around 40 per cent of people worldwide (2.6 billion) do not have access to a safe toilet, and nearly 20 per cent (1.1 billion) defecate in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Ecological Sanitation: An Alternative Route to Sustainable Livelihoods

    Basically this article focus on the generation of sewage their safe disposal. Some modified conventionl method, thier applicablity, suitability also mentioned here. How these methods also uplift the livelihood of rural population. Ecological sanitation is an attempt to move away from linear solutions of waste disposal towards systems based on a circular flow of nutrients. It considers human ...


  • Learning from the MDGs: Improved sanitation and drainage in cities

    The water MDG was widely acknowledged as the furthest from delivering against its objective, with criticism largely levelled at Target 7.C, which aimed to 'halve, by 2015, the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation'.  Across two issues of the journal, 22 papers tackle ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Ecological sanitation: An alternative route to sustainable livelihoods

    Most of the cities in Nepal,  except  Kathmandu,  the sewerage system  and onsite sanitation system are very poor due to improper management, less attention, and lack of political commitment of Gevernments of Nepal. The planned and safe disposal of human excreta is a must for preventing drinking water from pollution and conserving soil fertility. The conventional linear ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Are constructed treatment wetlands sustainable sanitation solutions?

    The main objective of sanitation systems is to protect and promote human health by providing a clean environment and breaking the cycle of disease. In order to be sustainable, a sanitation system has to be not only economically viable, socially acceptable and technically and institutionally appropriate, but it should also protect the environment and the natural resources. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The greening of South Africa is basic to its healing

    It is environmental issues which are crucial in restoring the disastrous impact of the apartheid system in South Africa. The denial of natural resources in the rural areas to the majority of the people in the country is largely responsible for most of the problems which confronted the new government. Land reform, provision of clean water and sanitation, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and other diseases, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • `Sites of entitlement` approach to conceptualising the right to water & sanitation

    The paper "Sites of entitlement: claim, negotiation and struggle in Mumbai" is now freely available online, ahead of its October publication in Environment and Urbanization.  In "Sites of entitlement: claim, negotiation and struggle in Mumbai", Colin McFarlane and Renu Desai argue for a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Decision-making criteria and indicators for water and sanitation projects in developing countries

    Water and sanitation projects for solving the needs of small communities in developing countries are complex in nature and involve complex decision-making, which must consider technical, socio-economic and environmental dimensions. Multicriteria analysis (MCA) is a suitable decision-aid method that scores a finite number of options on the basis of a set of evaluation criteria. The main challenge ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Missing the Millennium Development Goal targets for water and sanitation in urban areas

    "This paper reviews progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for water and sanitation in urban areas. Drawing on UN data, it shows the disastrous performance of many low- and middle-income nations in relation to the goal of halving the proportion without drinking water sources piped on premises and improved sanitation between 1990 and 2015. It also describes how even such a poor ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Public?private partnerships in basic service delivery: impact on the poor, examples from the water sector in India

    What is the theory behind Public?Private Partnerships (PPPs)? In this contribution PPPs are defined as private sector involvement, where a public and a private partner share the risks related to the necessary investments. Besides complementarity, the other factors contributing to the success of PPPs will be analysed. Evidence concerning India will be used to assess which factors played a role and ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Experiences with stakeholder involvement in strategic sanitation planning: a case study of the city of Darkhan, Mongolia

    Stakeholder involvement is a prerequisite in urban strategic sanitation planning, particularly in low-income countries. This paper investigates the experiences and lessons learnt in terms of effective stakeholder involvement gained from a case study on strategic sanitation planning in a peri-urban sub-district in the city of Darkhan, Mongolia. Conceptually the Darkhan case study builds on a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water, sanitation, hygiene and rural poverty: issues of sector monitoring and the role of aggregated indicators

    Water and sanitation improvements together with hygiene (WASH) are central to health. However, progress in ensuring access to these basic services remains inadequate, particularly in the rural developing world. To remedy this appalling situation, decision-makers need reliable data on which to base planning, targeting and prioritization. However, the challenges of collecting such data and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A basic bottom-up approach for small systems of safe-water supply: a decentralized case study in Uganda

    In developing countries, diarrhea is known as the major cause of burden among children. Diarrhea is associated to poor quality of drinking water, inadequate sanitation and insufficient hygiene behavior. This work introduces a bottom-up approach for the implementation of a borehole installation in conjunction with proper water handling in rural areas. A pre-intervention survey was performed as a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Safe greywater reuse to augment water supply and provide sanitation in semi-arid areas of rural India

    Water reuse is recognized as a tool to increase water supply in peri-urban areas of semi-arid and arid regions of the world. However, it is an option rarely explored for rural areas in developing countries, and has not been documented extensively in the scientific literature. This paper presents results from 6 greywater reuse systems which were built with the objective to augment water supply and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A short history of how we think and talk about sanitation services and why it matters

    How we think and talk about sanitation services has changed. The very notion of a sanitation service has been transformed from one focused on technology to one focused on the sustainability of the wider sanitation system. This paper explores the transformation from technology to system by drawing from a review of more than 200 pieces of literature published between 1970 and 2015. Seven ...


    By IWA Publishing

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