bicarbonate hardness Articles

  • How can I measure temporary and permanent water hardness?

    Hard water is water with high levels of dissolved minerals, and usually occurs in areas where limestone and chalk are common. These minerals can be divided into two types, and so hardness is often considered in two categories – permanent and temporary water hardness. So how can we measure water hardness? Can we measure temporary and permanent ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Assessment of groundwater quality in sunamganj of Bangladesh

    Huge quantities of groundwater, particularly from the shallow aquifers, are used for irrigation in Bangladesh and in the absence of adequate surface water in the dry season, irrigation becomes heavily dependent on groundwater. The water quality management is essential for long-term irrigation system as it persuades the soil properties. In irrigation water evaluation, emphasis is given on chemical ...


    By University of Tehran

  • Application notes: The Sievers InnovOx TOC analyzer: boiler water monitoring

    Background A boiler system is a semi-closed loop system in which water is heated and converted into steam to power a generator. The steam is then allowed to form a condensate and the process is repeated. Boiler water chemistry directly impacts boiler efficiency and fuel use. Improper water treatment allows scale formation and corrosion. Boiler scale and deposits form when impurities ...


    By GE Analytical Instruments

  • Introduction to Ion Exchange Part 1

    IMPURITIES IN WATERWater is often referred to as the 'universal solvent' as it will dissolve small amounts of everything it touches. Water collects or dissolves a variety of mineral salts, organic compounds and suspended solids as it flows over the earth's surface and through the ground. These impurities make water undesirable for use in many applications. It is, therefore, important to ...


    By Kinetico Incorporated

  • TDS and Sludge Generation Impacts from Use of Chemicals in Wastewater Treatment

    ABSTRACTThe paper analyses theoretically expected TDS changes resulting from use of typical chemicals and from biological treatment. This is compared with the experimental data from full-scale facilities and from bench tests. Sludge generation effects are also discussed with supporting data. INTRODUCTIONWith progressively more stringent limits and expanding list of controlled parameters ...

  • White paper - Ion Exchange Theory

    Ion exchange is the removal of unwanted “charged” particles, called ions, from raw water. In this process the ions are transferred to a solid particle, called an ion exchanger, which accepts these ions while returning an equal number of desirable ions. The exchangers are made of porous plastic resin, which gives them many “exchange sites”. In the basic reaction, an ion ...


    By W2 Systems

  • Chemical analysis of drinking water of villages of Sanganer Tehsil, Jaipur District

    Abstract Due to pressure of human activity, urbanization and industrialization, the groundwater sources are degraded gradually; therefore pure, safe, healthy and odorless drinking water is a matter of deep concern. There are many pollutants in groundwater due to seepage viz. organic and inorganic pollutants, heavy metals, pesticides, fluorides etc. In Rajasthan state, all 32 districts are ...

  • Municipality of Barrows, Manitoba case study

    Situated some 500 km north of Winnipeg, the municipality of Barrows is home to about 300 inhabitants. Barrows has a school in the village with close to 100 students. The only available source of water supply for the municipality is an underground spring with a TDS (total dissolved solids) concentration exceeding 1900 mg/L making the water undrinkable (see Table I). At the request of John Brittain ...


    By H2O Innovation

  • What Is a Boiler Feed Water Treatment System and How Does It Work?

    For industrial companies using a boiler for its facility, some type of boiler feed water treatment system is usually necessary to ensure an efficient process and quality steam generation. The most appropriate boiler feed water treatment system will help the facility avoid costly plant downtime, expensive maintenance fees, and boiler failure as a result of scaling, ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • What Is a Cooling Tower Water Treatment System and How Does It Work?

    For industrial companies using a cooling tower for its facility, some type of cooling tower water treatment system is usually necessary to ensure an efficient process and long equipment service life. If cooling tower water is left untreated, organic growth, fouling, scaling, and corrosion can reduce plant productivity, cause plant downtime, and require costly equipment replacements down the ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Profile of Ozone/Bromine Sanitation Systems for City of Tucson Municipal Pools

    Due to the inherent risks associated with the use of chlorine gas as a sanitizer for the City of Tucson’s twenty-six municipal swimming pool sites, I found myself in search of an alternative water sanitation method. The challenge was clear; find a system that would be safer to manage than gas chlorine, yet yield the same favorable sanitation and water quality results. Since all the sites ...

  • "A Non-Chemical Water Treatment for Cooling Towers"

    Untitled Document Introduction This paper will describe a case study of a ...


    By Dolphin WaterCare

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