bin level indicator Articles

  • Assessing sanitation service levels

    Conventional sanitation ladders rank sanitation in increasing complexity of technological options. However, sanitation improvement is not as straightforward as the concept of “a ladder” with incremental improvements, might suggest. For example, from the user perspective, a VIP toilet may in some circumstances be a better option than a septic tank system. There is a wide gap between ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Compactor monitor resort hotel case study

    Large resort hotel with highly variable levels of business due to seasonality. Garbage compactor was on a regular service schedule, twice per week. Compactor often was not full when picked up by hauler. Seasonal variations meant large variation in waste volumes generated. Engineering staff had no accurate method to measure compactor fill level. The ...

  • Comparing Leakage Performance using the Frontier Approach

    The choice of the most appropriate indicator to use to compare leakage performance between companies or zones has been the focus of much research and study. The IWA Water Loss Task Force made recommendations (Lambert, 2000) about standardising the terminology and the water balance and then went on to show the short comings of some performance measures. It introduced the concept of the unavoidable ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Real-time forecasting of Hong Kong beach water quality by 3D deterministic modelling

    Bathing beaches are important marine resources for many coastal cities. To safeguard the health of beach users, beach management authorities in Hong Kong rely on the use of the concentration of the indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). Currently, the beach water quality grading system (from “good” to “very poor”) is based on the geometric mean of the most recent ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Field Application of a Financial Model for Optimal NRW Management

    During 2009-2010, RTI International developed and published a financial model which calculates the financially optimum level of Non-Revenue Water (NRW). The model computes a target (under future steady-state conditions) for NRW reduction and control programs, based on site conditions and local costs. The model was presented at IWA Water Loss Specialist Conferences in Cape Town and Sao Paulo and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Profile: Presence of human noro- and adenoviruses in river and treated wastewater, a longitudinal study and method comparison

    Natural waters may contain viruses, which pose a risk if water is used as raw water for drinking water or for recreational purposes. Norovirus is one of the most common causative agents for waterborne gastroenteritis infections due to its stability in the environment and due to a low infectivity dose needed to cause infection. For several years, evidence has been collected that suggests that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cost recovery in urban water services : select experiences in Indian cities

    The report draws on a Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) study from 2008 which made a comparative analysis of 23 Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)-looking at seven cities in detail and another 16 based on secondary data-to understand the factors affecting cost recovery in India and provide an indication of current performance. It also draws out examples and lessons to inform reform approaches and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Past and future trends in grey water footprints of anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to major world rivers

    The grey water footprint (GWF) is an indicator of aquatic pollution. We calculate past and future trends in GWFs related to anthropogenic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs into major rivers around the world. GWFs were calculated from past, current and future nutrient loads in river basins using the Global NEWS model. We present water pollution levels (WPLs), deduced from GWFs for more than ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tackling water losses through improved domestic water bills

    The domestic water bills that municipalities send out to consumers on a monthly basis are a key interface between local government and citizens. Being a legal instrument, as well as a communication medium, the consumers' level of understanding of their water bills and the confidence in the information provided is therefore indicative of their effectiveness. A lack of understanding of bills ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Quantification and characterization of greywater from schools

    Survey of schools of different education levels (primary, intermediate and secondary) in Kuwait showed an average greywater generation rate of 7.3 L/p/d and varied  in the range of  2.9 – 16 L/p/d, reflecting the school level of education (i.e. student age). The highest rates were observed for primary schools while the lowest rates were observed in secondary schools where students ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Food waste service defence case study

    Client: Sodexo Defence Location: South West & South Central Navy MAC Date: March 2012 Sector: Defence About the Project: GPT Waste in partnership with Sodexo Defence delivers waste services to 11 MOD establishments on contract. Service improvements have been provided from contract start and the ...


    By GPT Waste Management Ltd

  • Climate risk case study : Bulleh Shah paper mills - packages, Ltd. Kasur, Pakistan

    This report assesses the risks posed by climate change to International Finance Corporation's(IFC's) investment in packages' new Bulleh Shah Paper Mills (BSPM) at Kasur, Pakistan, and identifies potential adaptation (risk management) measures that can be used to 'climate-proof' the investment. A number of conclusions can now be drawn regarding climate risks at BSPM. Packages Limited is Pakistan's ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tire Recycling System, Tyre Recycle Plant

    The production line technology, R & D by Wuhan Green world Technology Co., Ltd, can handling waste tire to fine rubber powder at room temperature. Overcoming the difficulty of the waste tire recycling, initiate to handle waste tire to 40-200 mesh fine rubber powder at room temperature, which indicated that Chinese industrial ...

  • Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biosolids Heat Drying: Safety in Design and Owner Operation

    ABSTRACTInterest continues to grow in heat drying as a means of processing biosolids into an aesthetically pleasing product form with multiple use opportunities, while also achieving a significant reduction in both volume and weight of biosolids for off-site hauling. As the number of heat drying installations increase, so too do reports of safety incidents—an indication that Owners and facility ...

  • Integrated 3D physical-numerical modelling for simulating bioremediation of petroleum contamination in heterogeneous subsurface environment

    This study presents physical-numerical modelling of petroleum contaminant transport and enhanced in situ bioremediation in heterogeneous subsurface environment. The approach is based on development of a three-dimensional multi-layered physical model coupled with a three-dimensional multiphase multi-component numerical model. An experimental scheme was designed to conduct 40-day benzene transport, ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • LAS Recycling Improves Weighing Accuracy and Data Collection Reporting with Avery Weigh-Tronix Forklift Scale

    LAS Recycling Ltd.’s material recycling facility in Wales, United Kingdom, has improved its weighing accuracy by a factor of ten and halved the amount of time it takes to weigh processed waste, since implementing Avery Weigh-Tronix’s forklift scale system in its operations. The system also uses radio frequency (RF) data transfer to improve data collection, recording and reporting. The material ...


  • Nitrate removal from groundwater by hydrogen-fed autotrophic denitrification in a bio-ceramsite reactor

    In this work, the denitrification performance of a bio-ceramsite reactor based on autohydrogenotrophic denitrification was investigated. The effects of various experimental parameters such as nitrate loading, carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), water temperature and pH were evaluated during the operation. The unique aspect of this research is that the bio-reactor uses ceramsite as a carrier, which ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Odor Control Advances at Composting Facility

    The Rockland County (New York) Cocomposting Facility began operations in February, 1999, processing biosolids from the five publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) in the county. The Rockland County Solid Waste Management Authority (RCSWMA) owns the facility, but contracted with Waste Management of New York to design, build and operate (DBO) the 110 wet tons/day agitated bin composting facility ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • Typical process weighing applications

    Process weighing relates to the weighing of a powder material as part of a production process. The technology includes continually monitoring a material in a silo, discharging material by weight or rate, or even weighing products on the move. This article gives an overview of most of the typical process weighing applications that are used in all sorts of industries: level or inventory measuring ...


    By Hardy Process Solutions

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