biological oxygen demand Articles

  • What are the differences between Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)?

    Ask the expert: What are the differences between Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)? Answer: Both COD and BOD test methods aim to give an indication of the amount of pollution in a water sample. COD is the amount of oxygen required to chemically breakdown the pollutants whereas BOD is the amount of oxygen ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Oxygen Transfer in a Biological Aerated Filter

    The City of San Diego (City) operates the Point Loma Wastewater Treatment Plant (PLWTP) which can normally treat up to 240 million gallons per day (MGD) of chemically enhanced primary treated (CEPT) effluent for ocean disposal. The City wanted to understand the performance capabilities of Biological Aerated Filters (BAFs) in treating CEPT effluent to secondary standards. To this end, the City ...

  • Efficient reduction of chemical oxygen demand in industrial wastewaters

    Depending on the industry activity and the situation, maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels between 200 and 1000 mgO2/l (ppmO2) must be reached in order to release the wastewaters back into the environment [1]. Wastewater treat-ment technologies, such as filtration, biological digestion, or incineration exist but these technologies are either expensive or generate sludges which must be ...


  • Factors affecting the performance of a single-chamber microbial fuel cell-type biological oxygen demand sensor

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as biocatalysts to degrade organic matter or sludge present in wastewater (WW), and thereby generate electricity. We developed a simple, low-cost single-chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC)-type biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensor using carbon felt (anode) and activated sludge, and demonstrated its feasibility in the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Why is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) a useful parameter for drinking water analysis?

    Ask the Expert: COD Analysis for Drinking Water Question: Why is Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) a useful parameter for drinking water analysis? Answer: At very basic level Chemical Oxygen ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Seven Ways Your Facility Isn’t Meeting Effluent Regulations and How to Solve Them

    Whether you own, operate, or help manage a municipal or industrial facility that deals with wastewater, it’s important to understand how wastewater treatment can play a significant role in the overall health of your business, especially when it comes to meeting effluent regulations. This is an important part of the wastewater treatment process to consider, as ignoring it could earn your ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Biological Wastewater Treatment

    Untitled Document The use of microorganisms to remove contaminants from wastewater is effective and widespread. To choose the right system from the many options offered, ...


  • Mechanical biological treatment trends

    Composting mixed municipal solid waste has a long tradition in Germany. In 1953, the first large-scale facilities in Baden-Baden and Blaubeuren started operating, followed later by plants in Heidelberg, Duisburg and other locations across the western part of Germany. Facilities were being opened to provide alternatives to landfilling MSW, and to produce compost for agricultural use. The quality ...


    By BioCycle Magazine

  • ppm Dissolved oxygen measurement

    Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) levels are used as a general indicator of water quality. Oxygen is essential to life and vital for countless aquatic forms. D.O. level control is critical in numerous applications ranging from the monitoring of industrial waste water to environmental surveillance. What is Dissolved Oxygen? Dissolved oxygen (D.O.) is the amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a ...


    By IC Controls Ltd.

  • Biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal in sequencing batch reactors: effects of cycle length, dissolved oxygen concentration and influent particulate matter

    Removal of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) from municipal wastewaters is required to mitigate eutrophication of receiving water bodies. While most treatment plants achieve good N removal using influent carbon (C), the use of influent C to facilitate enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is poorly explored. A number of operational parameters can facilitate optimum use of influent C and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater from the antibiotics industry

    Pharmaceutical wastewater generated by an antibiotics (penicillin) company was treated by aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) and sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). At a low organic loading rate of 0.22 kg-COD m−3d−1, both types of reactors were capable of treating the wastewater such that the treated effluent met the discharge regulation except for the total dissolved ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Enhanced physicochemical-biological sewage treatment process in cold regions

    Biological treatment processes give relatively poor pollutant removal efficiencies in cold regions because microbial activity is inhibited at low temperatures. We developed an enhanced physicochemical-biological wastewater treatment process that involves micro-membrane filtration, anaerobic biofilter, and aerobic biofilter to improve the pollutant removal efficiencies that can be achieved under ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Improving biological phosphorus removal in membrane bioreactors – a pilot study

    With increasing water reuse applications and possible stringent regulations of phosphorus content in secondary and tertiary effluent discharge in Florida, USA, alternative technologies beyond conventional treatment processes require implementation to achieve low phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) concentrations. A pilot scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) system, operated in Florida, adopted the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Investigation of furfural biodegradation in a continuous inflow cyclic biological reactor

    The performance of a continuous inflow cyclic biological reactor (CBR) containing moving media was investigated for the degradation of high concentrations of furfural. The effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and furfural initial concentrations (loading rate), as main operating parameters, on the bioreactor performance were studied. The results indicated that the CBR could remove over 98% ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Vermifilters: a tool for aerobic biological treatment of herbal pharmaceutical wastewater

    Herbal pharmaceutical wastewater possesses high chemical oxygen demand (COD) (21,960–26,000 mg/l) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (11,200–15,660 mg/l) and suspended solids (SS) (5,460–7,370 mg/l). It cannot be directly discharged into surface water bodies, due to its highly biodegradable nature. Herbal pharmaceutical wastewater has been treated by using vermifilter, which is an ecosystem ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Nutrient removal in reverse osmosis concentrates using a biological aerated filter

    The aim of this study is to employ a biological aerated filter (BAF) in the treatment of reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate received from reuse of treatment plant wastewater. Furthermore, the influence of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N ratio on the nutrient removal was analyzed to find the detailed removal pathways of nutrients. The result was found to be high efficiency for biochemical oxygen ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Novel application of bamboo-based fibers in a biological contact oxidation process

    Generally, biofilm-supporting carriers in biological contact oxidation processes are made from thermoplastic polymers, which cause potential ecological damage because of the low biodegradation and high accumulation in organisms. Thus, four bamboo-based fibers, bamboo primitive fiber, bamboo fiber, bamboo charcoal fiber (BBF) and bamboo charcoal–cotton blending fiber (BCBF), were used as ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Degradation of atrazine by microbial consortium in an anaerobic submerged biological filter

    Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) (ATZ) is one of the components of S-triazine. Due to its certain characteristics, ATZ causes pollution in various ecosystems and has been of concern for its probable carcinogenic effects on humans. Researchers have used chemical and physical methods for removing ATZ from the environment. Although these methods are quick, they have ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Treatment of petrochemical secondary effluent by an up-flow biological aerated filter (BAF)

    In this study, petrochemical secondary effluent was treated by a 55 cm diameter pilot-scale biological aerated filter (BAF) with a media depth of 220 cm. Volcanic rock grains were filled as the BAF media. Median removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) was 29.35 and 57.98%, respectively. Moreover, the removal profile of the COD, NH3-N, total ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biological nitrate removal using waste-derived extracts as sole carbon source

    Waste-derived multicomponent extracts were investigated as carbon source for biological nitrate removal. Aerobic and anaerobic sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and leachate from an anaerobic digester treating food waste were studied. Alkaline-heat treatment was used for sludge solubilisation. More than 90% carbon was recovered at pH 10–11. The extracts contain very high ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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